Neurotransmitters are chemical substances that are released from the synaptic vesicles of a neuron into the synaptic cleft, the small gap between neurons, in response to an action potential (electrical signal). They transmit signals across the synapse (the junction between two neurons) to a target cell, which can be another neuron, a muscle cell, or a gland cell.

Neurotransmitters play a crucial role in the communication between neurons and are essential for various physiological processes, including cognition, emotion, sensation, movement, and autonomic functions. They can be categorized into several classes based on their chemical structure and function.

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